Religion and Secularity: 99% of the Turkish population is Moslem. However, everyone in Turkey has freedom of religion and beliefs. The first phases in the introduction of secularism were the abolition of the Caliphate and the Ministry of Sheria and Pious Foundations on March 4th, 1924, followed by the introduction of separate educational and judicial systems, the hat reform, the closure of dervish retreats and religious sects, the acceptance of a Sunday weekend holiday rather than the Moslem Friday and finally the adoption of the principle of secularism in the constitution on 1937. In secular Turkey, all religious affairs are carried out by a central government organisation affiliated to the Prime Ministry, namely the Department of Religious Affairs.
02.03.2015 | 06:57:11
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Turkey presents mountains lovers with an incredible variety of interesting climbing opportunities that are sure to satisfy the most demanding hikers, climbers, and winter sports fans. In Turkey, mountains come in all sizes, geo-morphological and tectonic structures and boast abundant wildlife and forests teeming with diverse flora and fauna. Every year thousands of tourists from all over the world come to Turkey for winter sports (especially skiing), mountains climbing and hiking.
Mt. Agri (HOLY ARARAT): Turkey's highest mountain, Ararat, has a legendary status due to its geologic location and the fact that it is believed to have been the final resting place of Noah’s Ark. This peak, mentioned in the Bible, has several names in different languages, the main ones being Ararat, Kuh - i Nuh and Cebel ul Haristir. Prof. Frederick Von Parat successfully reached its summit, which Marco Polo said no-one would ever climb, on 9 October 1829. The former president of the Mountaineering Federation, Dr. Bozkurt Ergor on 21 February 1970 made the second ascent. Thousands of visitors came in 1980, and ten years later climbing was banded but this was lifted in 1998 when the Mountaineering Federation gave permission to a group of climbers.
Height: 5165 m. Location: Eastern Anatolia, near the border with Iran and Georgia, between the Aras and Murat Rivers. Best Time for Climbing: July to September. Winter climbing is very difficult but extremely rewarding.
Characteristics: Mount Ararat (5165m) is the highest peak in Turkey and Europe. It is a volcanic mountain made up of basalt, which changes to andesite lava around 4000 m. At the summit there is a glacier, and on the eastern slope is the Serdarbulak ridge, with Kucuk (Little) Ararat at 3896m. The height of Mount Ararat, along with its glaciers, geological formations, people, and mountain meadows covered snow has an alluring, almost magical appearance.
Transportation and Accommodations: The Trabzon-Erzurum-Tehran International Highway winds around the foothills of Mt. Ararat and leads to Iran. There are regular air, rail and bus connections between Ankara and Erzurum. Dogubeyazit is the closest city to the mountain, easily accessible from Mt. Ararat and Erzurum. There are a number of restaurants and lodging places in the city and the surrounding area.
Climbing Equipments: Crampons, rope (11mm), an ice pick and safety gear such as an ice-auger and climbing tape. Summer Ascents: Sleeping bags made for temperatures of -5, -10 ºC, anorak, wind jacket, other camping gear and important supplies. In order to climb Mount Ararat and/or Little Ararat, permission is required and it is mandatory that climbers begin their journey from the following points. - Ascents of Mt. Ararat can only be attempted on the portion of the face that is within the district boundaries Dogubeyazit, and must follow the Dogubeyazit - Topcatan village - Eli Ciftligi route. - Ascents up Little Ararat may only be made along the northwest face. The easiest route in terms of communication and accessibility, and the most commonly followed one, is the southern route. - Climbers staying at Dogubeyazit can make their final preparations for climbing here and continue by car to the village of Eli. After getting water here, the first campsite, which is at 2800 m, takes 7-8 hours to reach. On the second day, after a 4-6 hour climb, one can expect to reach the next campsite at around 4200 m. It is obligatory for climbers to be equipped with crampons, rope and ice-picks. It takes about 8-10 hours to reach the peak and to return to the first campsite at 2800 m.
Dear Mr. Sen: Our family greatly enjoyed our vacation in Turkey, including the tour of Western Turkey arranged by Ezop Travel.
The guide you provided, Timur, was well-informed, friendly and a good travel companion.
We appreciated that he was flexible as well, for example when we decided we'd seen enough Roman and
Greek ruins and asked to substitute an afternoon on the beach for the ruins at Troy.
David Adelstein (USA)